Tag Archives: master

Paradise Lost – Part 2

{Continued from Paradise Lost – Part 1.}

After a disheartening few days in Heshun Ancient Scenic Area and my sobering discoveries about the Tengchong Shadow Puppet Troupe, I went back to my hostel room to regroup.

Since I’d arrived in paradise, I’d been slowly developing a rash all over my body. This day, today, I’d hit my peak. My skin screamed out for hot water or dry sheets – any place with less humidity. Part of me felt like the increased discomfort outside was simply a manifestation of my growing unease inside. This whole trip, supposedly a triumphant return to Chinese shadow puppet apprenticeship, had turned into a long, sad trail of stories. Although my skin is telling me to run, I know I must stay. I need at least one more day to visit the Master Liu in Liuzha Zhai. 

The next day, I hustle to organize a ride out to the village and make sure the master is at home via his nephew, who is away on a job. The last time I visited Liuzha Zhai in 2011, I had been given a ride by the one of the former members of the troupe and the day had been filled with glorious family fun, community celebrations and stunning food. This time, it is just me – trying to find my way back along the breadcrumbs that might still be there.

A few buses get me back to Tengchong city proper. There, I hunt down directions to Liuzha Zhai. In a town any larger than this, it would be impossible to find someone who knows the way. As it is, everyone knows the way. The easiest path emerges as a bus to Huoshan, the famous volcano monument and then a private ride from there.

The tourist buses in town also have the lonely feel of off-season. Just villagers now, trying to get back to their village after selling their morning’s worth of wares in town or kids returning home from school. I seem to be the only possible tourist on the bus and I’m not even heading to Huoshan. After I dismount, I quickly make my way back to the biggest intersection near the old volcano and ask for a car that might take me to Liuzha Zhai. Within minutes, we are speeding down the road in a beige colored metal box. And, within just a few more minutes, the village’s gate comes into view. I hop off and make my way down a side road into the village.

This little side road feels familiar.

I’ve walked it before. The tall brick walls of the village homes are only bested by the old growth of the trees that creep over top of them. The canopy feels warm and cool at the same time, casting a green glow on everything below. The relative quiet of village life compared with the din of a small town is noticeable. The mind quiets as well. I walk slowly even though I am anxious to get somewhere.

I know the master’s house is close – well, everything is relatively close in a small village. I ask a few passersby and they point me in the direction I am headed. A few missed turns and dead ends and finally, I am there.

With a timid knock, I step over the threshold of the master’s big red doorway.


I meet his wife again who tells me the master is out but will be home shortly. I wait.


She seems tired and not interested in talking, so I let the silence linger. In a few minutes, the master comes waddling through the doorway. We grin and I let him lead the way.

IMG_8066 copy

Out first is a collection of machine-made puppets, which everyone has nowadays. I admire them; let him set them on some white foam backgrounds and we talk about their coloring and design. Next, some simpler handmade puppets depicting the common ethnic minorities in Yunnan province are placed into my hands.

IMG_8038Modern Hand-cut Ethnic Minority Shadow Puppets

The leather feels smooth, beautiful and though simple, the aesthetic is satisfying. Finally, I ask him to bring out his oldest puppets.

IMG_8048A 100+ year old Yunnan shadow puppet, made by Master Liu’s ancestors. 

The workmanship, the thick hide and the strength of the design is mesmerizing. It trumps all here.

Puppets are always my favorite thing. I could look at them for days on end and remain in their differences, their cutting mastery, their design logic – but today, I’m distracted. Even the beauty of the oldest puppet can’t keep me. I want to know how the master’s doing. To understand how he was in 2011 and to see him now, my heart sinks. The master has clearly been drinking at lunch, he has a terrible cough and he’s listless. I start gently by asking him about the troupe, his nephew, the changes. “How many performances do you have per year now?” “Not many”, “How is the troupe doing?” “The young people don’t like to participate anymore.” It seems to be too much already. His answers are patient, but curt enough for me to know I shouldn’t plunge too much further in. We small talk about big stuff: how many shadow puppet players from his generation are left, the power TV seems to have over the young people and his nephew. The answers are clear enough.

We talk for over an hour. I feel paralyzed. Part of me feels like I’m wasting his time and part of me never wants to leave. I can’t tell if my presence might give him a small remembrance that his work is meaningful or if it’s simply a nuisance that I won’t stop asking questions that have little direct meaning in his world. At some point it does feel greedy and I see his energy flagging. I buy a few modest modern puppets (hand-cut) and we say our goodbyes.

Prematurely, I’m back out onto the road, under the canopy, feeling lost. Much more lost than when I came.

Instead of heading directly to catch another car heading back to Huoshan, I decide to take a long walk around the village again. Nothing else seems to have changed from three years ago. Small children run and play, the small weekday market is doing modest business on the main road and though the prayer hall and the theatre are locked, they don’t look as though they’ve been left alone for too long.




It’s true what they say. Some things change and some things stay the same. So, I hitch a car back into town and do my best to keep my chin up.

Thanks for reading~


North by Northwest – Part 1

After a short breather in Xi’an, I braved the bus towards the northwestern corner of China’s mainland to the small city of Huanxian in Gansu province. I have been to Huanxian once before, for just a few days in 2011, to attend the National Shadow Puppet Conference held every four years. My memory of the conference is fuzzy as we were shuffled here and there to watch this and that for a full three days. Indelibly, however, the Huanxian performers and cutters are still clear in my mind. They seemed out of place at the conference, even though it was their home turf: while the other troupes handled press with ease and utilized the proscenium stage, the Huanxian artists were awkward in the outsider gaze and unaccustomed to performing indoors. I fell in love with them instantly and knew I had to visit them again, in the sobriety of the off-season.

The bus dropped me off with little aplomb. With one mainstreet, Huanxian is just over one mile long. Its side streets stretch another mile or so wide, but beyond that, the mountains cut off expansion on either side.


They tower over the valley and shelter it from the rest of the world. The wind had swirled the dry, loose soil into a layer of hazy fog that I would have assumed was pollution had I not known Huanxian didn’t have any industry to speak of.

The Shadow Puppet themed hotel was just a three-block walk from the town’s central square and 2 blocks from the bus terminal. I checked in at the front desk, overseen by a few shadow puppet warriors hung ominously high on the walls. Once settled in the tacky, but decent room on the sixth floor, I checked in with my contacts to announce my arrival. Huanxian’s main puppet making company is located on the second floor of the hotel and the cutting workshop just out back. I guess in a town this small, convenience of this sort shouldn’t be a surprise.

Li Yaping, a former provincial level puppet maker, met me in the Longying Shadow Puppet company’s offices. Long years of leaning over a cutting table have relegated her to a manager’s position. She gave us a tour of the offices, empty like a ghost town, and the exhibition room, which boasts a host of lovely pieces and innovative designs. When I asked how busy the company was these days, she replied simply, “not busy.” After discussing the particulars, we agreed that tomorrow I could head out back and look for my cutting teacher myself.

The next morning at nine sharp, I headed out back with my serious researcher pants on, my backpack full of notebooks, freshly charged batteries and my mind set on my goal. Mornings like these have begun to feel familiar. My lack of appetite betrays my outwardly cool composure: I care. I care deeply how the next hour will transpire. A mixture of dread and excitement lays thick in my belly because I never know what I’m going to find. The perfect situation could present itself; an amiable master, a nice workshop, a great study routine and a reasonable price. Or, I could find disgruntled employees, a depressing workshop and an unaffordable situation.

After a thorough tour of the workshop building, I find no one is there. My heart and stomach flutter for a second, but I quickly decide to take the hunt back to the main office. I find the second floor peopled with just one young woman who eagerly agrees to help in my hunt. We head behind the workshop building to the squat brick buildings that serve as residents for some of the employees. We ask a few questions, stand around awkwardly and then, Gao Qingwang rounded the corner. From a distance you could see the deep smile lines creased in his weathered face. He walked with a relaxed gait: open and curious. My young guide jumped when she saw him and explained who I was. In moments, we had agreed to head back to his workshop and talk a bit.

Ten minutes later, the three of us are sitting comfortably in Gao Qingwang’s beautiful studio: a small 10×15 ft room with a window towards the mountains. A bed is in one corner for midday rests and he has shadow puppet trunks stacked against the other wall. Knick knacks and souvenirs are everywhere.





Without ceremony, Master Gao retrieved a piece of leather he was working on, his tools and sat down to work. Relative to other masters, Gao is talkative and can explain his work in motion. He is open to questions, listens thoughtfully and works steadily.



After a buoyant half hour of observation and conversation, we agreed to study every morning for my remaining time in Huanxian.

These are the mornings I dream of. The relief the encounter brought summoned my suppressed hunger and I headed off to an early lunch of hand-pulled noodles and pickled vegetables.


Part Two of my work in Gansu to follow…

Thanks for reading~

The Stuff We’re Made Of

After my last puppet hunt in Shanxi, I returned to Beijing and used my last week in China to eat my favorite foods, see my favorite people and take a trip to the bathhouse.

The week was more than surreal.  It was horrible and wonderful.  Ever since I had arrived, a part of me had looked forward to the end.  As with any adventure, it’s an experience of all colors, shapes, sizes and intensities.  Above all – it’s big.  I didn’t have a single day that could have been labeled as routine or mundane.  And, after 10 straight months of challenge and adventure, all I wanted was a non-challenge.  And oatmeal for 365 days in a row.

Still, how does one say goodbye to such a year?  Such an experience?  It seems silly to bookend it, and yet, when doing research abroad – one must.  It’s nearly impossible to bring it home with you.  The information is there, but the feeling is so elusive.

Bringing it home with me has been the hardest part of the transition.  Not the reverse culture shock.  Not the fact that people obey traffic laws or refrain from spitting on the sidewalk.  Not the relative isolation we Americans live in or the cleanliness.  Just simply that I can’t live in both these worlds at the same time.  They are, geographically and mentally, too far away from each other.  I am the single being that can connect my two realities, corroborate my own story and so far, it’s been clumsy at best.

I believe this only feeds into my mission: to create a bigger bridge, for myself and others, that merge these two realities: to introduce Chinese shadow puppetry to new fans and stewards around the world and celebrate with old ones.

I plan to continue this site as a general Chinese shadow puppet informational blog.  I will keep processing my own observations of the year, my own personal attempts to innovate or preserve the work and any return trips I make to China to continue my research.  The posts will slow, but my passion will not.

Thank you to anyone who read this blog and lent their attention throughout the year.  Chinese shadow puppetry and I, thank you!

A Few Big Thanks:

  • To the Fulbright program, for making this entire thing possible (and to the amazing support from the Beijing, NYC and DC Offices)
  • To my parents, who are the best cheerleaders (and blog editors) a girl could ask for
  • To all the shadow puppet artist in China, for showing me a generosity I had yet to experience and dedication that I hope to honor for years to come

The Pot of Gold – Part 2

(continued from previous blog – to read, click here.)

That night, I didn’t sleep much.  While everyone else in Shanxi is barely heating their homes, the Changchun hotel decided to keep our rooms at a balmy 78 degrees.   I was in paradise and I was anxious.  I finished my novel, caught up in my journal and paced around in my stocking-less feet (heaven for my thawing toes!).   The Ministry of Culture?  It sounded like a very intimidating group of people.  What if I couldn’t even get into the building?  Was my North Face outfit proper clothing for such a meeting?  What if I needed an appointment?  If I did, would I wait another day?  I already had a ticket to Beijing late tomorrow evening – my days of waiting had whittled away my precious time.

After listening to myself fret for hours, it was pretty obvious I really wanted their help.  I really, really wanted to find this troupe. Ostensibly, it was just another trip, but deep down it had come to mean something much more.  It felt like a mix of proving myself, paving the way for more true puppet hunts next time, showing Zhang Laoshi she couldn’t stop me from finding them and, most importantly, it would mean another shadow puppet troupe had survived.  The true puppet hunt was a self-imposed right of passage I’d given myself.  I knew it wasn’t my fault if I didn’t pass, but it didn’t stop me from wanting it.  Badly.

After rehearsing a multitude of possible introductions I’d give the Ministry tomorrow, finishing my novel and scribbling down a host of notes, I fell into a feverish sleep.  I awoke early the next morning and got myself good and ready.  By 8:15 am, I had eaten at the hotel’s complimentary breakfast buffet, packed and checked out.  I had 40 minutes before I could head over to the government building.  I spent most of it in the lobby pretending to be absorbed by their fish tanks.  Mostly, I was just counting down the seconds.

At exactly 8:55, I exited the lobby and headed just around the corner.  The government building in Xiaoyi follows the design directive from the rest of the government buildings in China: intimidating, impassable and humongous.  As I walked up the steps, I could feel a wave of calm sweep over me.  Either it was going to go or it wasn’t.  And I would know whether it wasn’t in just a few minutes.

I walked swiftly past the guards and into the elevator with what I hoped was a look of but-of-course-certainly-absolutely-I-know-where-I’m-going.    After I got off on the 8th floor, I looked around with caution.  None of the doors were labeled.  One end of the hall was dark, the other well lit.  A janitor was mopping just a few feet away.  Save her, the place seemed empty.  I quietly asked her if she knew where the Ministry of Culture office was.  She gave me a shrug and kept pushing her mop.  I headed to the first office with voices and peeked in.  They pointed me to room 830.  I walked slowly to the door, took a deep breath and gave a good rap.

I heard muffled voices, some chair squeaks and – it opened.   Just beyond my view of the door frame were four very nice looking people with confused but kind faces.  After the stun wore off, I blabbered through my intro and within minutes they had ushered me to ‘the guy’.

Without ceremony or questioning, he whipped out his cell phone and looked up someone’s name, wrote a few scribbles down and told me Bidu Village.  Only once did he look up and say ‘you’re really and American?’

I grabbed that piece of paper and left uttering my thanks profusely, perhaps subconsciously afraid that they’d revoke the precious information if I let them think about what they’d done for too long.   I had it!  In my hot little hands!  The treasure map!  X marked the spot!

I called the number and a raspy voice told me to “come on over”!

I walked swiftly to the edge of the road without thinking.  I hailed the first taxi and explained myself.  “I’d like to find a shadow puppet master in Bidu Village and talk to him for the day and then I’ve got to get to the train station”.   The luck that hadn’t been with me the three days prior was with me in full force today.  My taxi driver turned out to be an ever curious and funny fellow who was only too game to find a puppet master in Bidu.  He even knew where the village was.

We chatted like old friends for the half hour drive, my mind still a float.  After a few wrong and then right turns, we ended up on a snowy drive, lined by old round-roofed houses.  The mist over the surrounding fields was so heavy that for a moment, I was pretty sure we were the only place on earth.

From a distance, I could see a hunched figure dressed in navy.  The puppet master was waiting for us on the road and waved us down.  His smile could be seen from a long ways out.

After a jumble of introductions and shuffling in through the narrow doorway,

we sat on his Kang bed, all three of us, as he told us about his past as a shadow puppeteer.

Master Wu is the last of a long line of shadow and rod puppeteers.  In 1863, his great-great-great-great (that’s 7 generations) grandfather started a troupe in the small village of Bidu.  They enjoyed nearly a century of success until the Cultural Revolution hit.   Like many of the troupes around the country, the Wu’s were forced to burn their entire puppet stock to ensure no one was performing ‘unapproved’ shows.  Trunks and trunks of handmade puppets burned, decades of oral history up in smoke.

For forty years, Master Wu went back to farming full time.  But he never forgot his stories.  “How did you keep them?” I asked.  “Here” he said, pointing to his head and then his heart.

When Master Wu was allowed to practice again, he had to start from scratch.  And, instantly, he saw the audience had changed.   The troupe stopped performing locally about 10 years ago.

Luckily, in 2005, the small town of Xiaoyi added the then 69-year-old Master Wu to their payroll as a cultural steward.  He gives performances and teaches a bit, but mostly, this small salary allows him to live out his days with little hardship.   In the warm months, he travels to the nearby tourist town of Datong for tourist performances throughout the summer.

At some point, while my taxi hero and Master Wu were chatting amongst themselves, I had a moment.  The weight, the sheer weight, of the entire year in all its good-bad-big-amazingness, came swooping down and smacked me in the chest.   I smarted at the blow.

I had made it.  We had made it.  Shadow puppetry and I had made it through the year, together.  And here is where my rainbow ended.   After traveling for so long, it was incredible to feel like I had arrived somewhere even if it was a destination of my own creation.

We spent the rest of the day on the Kang bed, chatting the day away.

Thanks for reading~

The Pot of Gold – Part 1

The year is coming to a close.  My grant is coming to a close.  And with any great party, you want it to end on a high note.  Or a significant note.  I had just enough time to get in one last destination, close to Beijing, before I had to head back to the States.  So many choices, but such an important place in line.  I went back through my notes for the last time and plotted dots on a small provincial map.  And there was Shanxi.  In all my travel back and forth, I’ve crossed through it a number of times.  I’ve been wanting to research there since 2008, what with all the talk about how similar they are to Shaanxi style, but I still hadn’t found a direct contact to the province.

Oh.  Maybe that was it.

A true puppet hunt.

So it was decided.  I would end this miraculous year of the puppet trail with a true lark.  Xiaoyi city, Shanxi province.  They supposedly had a traditional shadow puppet troupe, but no one had seen or heard from them in while.  I would show up in my borrowed winter coat and somehow look for them.  I would find them or I wouldn’t.  Somehow, it felt right.

My stepping stone into the small city of Xiaoyi was Pingyao, which is a magnificently preserved old-walled city from the Ming Dynasty.   And, they had a youth hostel.  This is always helpful when you need off-the-beaten-trail bus information or an “American Breakfast” while on the road.

I landed in Pingyao on a Saturday morning off a particularly strange overnight train route that required a 2-hour, 3am layover in who-knows-where.  After confirming that I had missed today’s morning bus, I spent the rest of the day taking naps and trying to keep my feet warm on my rubber water bottle.   The next day, I was more than ready.  I headed out to the bus station with my things, aiming for the 10am bus.  But, the bus station attendant informed me that there were no buses today.  There would be some tomorrow.  When I tried to figure out the schedule, I got a shrug in return.  Fine.  I would come back tomorrow.

The rest of that day was spent finishing an Eileen Chang novel and getting most of the way through another.  I drank hot chocolate and took a few walks.  You would think that it was pleasant to have to stay another day in a beautiful old Chinese town, but it wasn’t. I had slept enough, but I was exhausted.  My  short tolerance for tourism had evaporated entirely sometime around October. And, I hate waiting.  Anyone who knows me can tell you that.

Finally, the next morning arrived.  Like a déjà vu, I headed back to the bus station with all my things.  Luckily, the buses were running that day but I couldn’t purchase the ticket yet as the bus hadn’t arrived.  By 9:30, the bus still hadn’t arrived.  At 9:50, the same story.  I’ve been in China long enough to get a ‘sixth sense’ when things are about to not happen.  I sat in that dark bus station weighing this trip.  Would I wait another day?  How long would I wait to get to Xiaoyi?   What was it worth to me?  Even if I got there, I had no guarantee I’d find them.

But, I’m stubborn.  This year has revealed my stubbornness in embarrassing ways.  Often times, it gets me into frustrating situations, but often times I’m rewarded for it.

When the attendant came to find me, still deep in thought on the station bench, she told me that the bus to Xiaoyi had a ‘problem’.  “Of course it does,” I said.  And after an hour of indecision, in that moment I knew I would go.  I would wait, I would walk, I would hire a car, I would go.  “Is there another way to get there?”  There was.

I hoped on the next bus to Fenyang.  We drove on dirt roads through frozen fields and eventually I got dropped off here.  My toes were very cold.

There I waited and got on another long bus to Xiaoyi.  By then, my toes were small toe-shaped ice cubes.

I got to Xiaoyi and promptly called the one phone number my Beijing master had given me a few days earlier.  Even though I had wanted to go in with no treasure map, it was a relief to have a place to start.  I wasn’t sure who this woman was, but my Master said she was putting up puppet shows.

Of all the people I’ve met throughout the year, I can safely say that Zhang Laoshi is the most interesting.   And that’s the kind of ‘interesting’ when I don’t know how else to put it.

From a clear 50 meters, I could tell she was wearing a shield of makeup and a fake hairpiece that didn’t match her own.  Her rhinestone tiara-like headband was blinding and offset her dark brocade ensemble.  I felt guilty at my instant assumption that she couldn’t be a shadow puppeteer.

Zhang Laoshi first took me to her house, which was a strange Romanesque-like re-creation squished among ubiquitous cement block apartment buildings.  She must have bought three floors and gutted the place in order to build exactly to her specifications.  The place was dripping in gold and chiffon. There was a stuffed sea turtle next to a bust of Chairman Mao.  A large fountain in the front foyer sent peaceful sounds of running water all the way up to the second floor interior balcony.  There was a silent contingent of men waiting on her and though they never said Hello to me, they made sure the floor was mopped and food prepared without us having to ask for it.

The pictures on the mantle of her in a traditional Chinese opera headdress confirmed my assumption.  Zhang Laoshi is not a shadow puppeteer, but an aging opera star who now runs Xiaoyi’s largest theatre.  After watching movies of herself performing in both dramatic films and opera movies, we headed across the parking lot to the theatre’s rehearsal hall.

There, in exact contrast to Zhang Laoshi’s peaceful Roman oasis, were 30 young students playing instruments and fiddling with the puppet screen that sat sturdily in the middle of the room.  They had all joined the theatre as employees after apprenticing with the theatre from the young age of 14 or 15.  The noise was such a welcomed surprise that I realized I’d been holding my breath.  I scurried to the back of the stage and instantly started sticking my nose in everyone’s business.

The students were delightful and equally intrigued with me.  Zhang Laoshi has been all over the world, but the troupe has not.  The theatre has just begun adding shadow puppetry to their opera and dance repertoire.  The students were enthusiastic about their new endeavors with shadow puppetry and eager to perform the shows they had just learned. 

I could tell just by seeing the opening scenery that this was a Master Liu show (he teaches with the Longzaitian Company in Beijing and has been hired by the Xiaoyi company as new puppet master) copied to the T.  Still, it was a well performed piece with live dialogue and music.

Amidst the rehearsals, I continued to question Zhang Laoshi about Xiaoyi’s traditional shadow puppet troupe or cutters.  She blocked me on all counts, replying  with ‘you don’t need to see that’ or ‘we don’t have any’ or ‘they don’t practice anymore’ and following it up with ‘we have traditional shadow puppetry at our theatre’ and ‘they’ve only rehearsed this show for a month’.  Even if all those statements weren’t contradictory, it was clear she wasn’t telling me the truth.  After more questioning, she finally had another theatre employee take me to the ‘master cutters’ workshop – which is really a tourist production workshop situated in a cultural museum next to Xiaoyi’s beautiful daoist temple.

During my requisite tour of the entire museum, I spotted a small photo with a traditional shadow troupe performing.  I spun around and asked my host about them.   He relented; “I don’t know where they are’, he said ‘maybe you can look for them in the spring.”  So they did exist.

I made my escape as early as I could, letting her know I was very thankful and didn’t want to bother her anymore – I would continue the search on my own tomorrow.  When they dropped me off at the closest hotel, they pointed out the monstrous building around the corner and mentioned “that’s the government building – the ministry of culture is on the 8th floor.  You could ask them for help.”  I thought I detected a smirk, but I couldn’t be sure.

-End of Part 1, To be continued

Thanks for reading~

The students of the Xiaoyi Theatre

It Takes An Army

Shandong province has a unique shadow puppet history. It is said to be a direct descendant of the Beijing/Hebei Province shadow form, although you’d never think so to look at it. It is the only style in all of China to have evolved into a one-man show tradition.

I arrived in Tai’an early off an overnight train from Beijing and after checking into my hotel, was swiftly carried off by Weiguo, the son of Tai’an’s only remaining puppet master, Fan Zhang An. Weiguo and I met at the shadow puppet conference in Gansu and we got along so well, I would have visited them regardless of the puppetry.

In 2009, the family started their own ‘cultural’ teahouse, located on a large shopping street just south of Tai’an’s famous Dai Temple. Their bread and butter is largely from the tourists who rotate in throughout the more temperate months to climb the famous Mount Taishan, which is located just outside the city. For now, the below freezing temperatures meant it was just me and them. I didn’t mind the intimacy.

More than any other artist that I’ve met this year, Master Fan is what I would call a true showman. Every single thing he does is with a glowing, jolly graciousness that keeps you smiling – even if you’re not sure what for. His story begins at the young age of 8.

Master Fan was born into a poor family, right in Tai’an city. He can’t recall exactly how he knew he wanted to see a shadow puppet show, but he saved for a year to earn the 5 cent ticket price. At the age of eight, he saw his first show. In a moment, he was hooked for life. For the next two years, he spent his nights waiting by the theatre’s back door or climbing over its wall for any and all chances to lay eyes on those puppets. By the age of 10, he could stand the distance no longer. He gave up his schooling to become a shadow puppet apprentice, despite the prolonged protests from his family.

His apprenticeship was taxing. Out of 8 students, he’s the only one who made it. And, he is the only one to continue the rare one-man shadow tradition.

As the story goes, when shadow puppetry came to Tai’an 600 years ago, it was still largely a tourist town: people have been coming to visit the best of China’s five sacred mountains for over 3000 years. There was an Inn who used shadow puppetry as entertainment to draw the business in. But when times got tough, they had to cut costs somehow. That somehow was entertainment. Slowly, the troupe of 7 or 8 became one.

Fan mastered this performance style by the age of 17.

He performed for a few years, married his wife whom he met at the local theatre, and was conscripted into the Communist army at 21 years of age. For five years, he served in the army but never stopped performing. He created small shows for his fellow soldiers all the while.

At the age of 26, he moved back to Tai’an permanently, but kept on as a government employee. Even now, Weiguo tells me that he’s a particular favorite for the local police and traffic officials. And he never stopped learning. He’s currently one of the last living performers of two types of Shandong ‘clappertalk’, a sort of talk-song accompanied with his own rhythmic scoring.

Click here for a short video of Master Fan and his wife rehearsing for their new number.

And even though Master Fan is the star, it takes an army to keep the one-man show going.

Weiguo ostensibly runs the teahouse, which employs seven full time performers, writers, designers and servers. His sister is there as well as a few new graduates from local art programs. Master Fan’s wife is an accomplished singer and Yangding player (a horizontal-like picking harp) and the two form an amazing performance duo.

The group is tight. They eat together, celebrate birthdays together (which I was also in on – my first China KTV Karaoke experience), and chat the day away while they work. I loved spending time with them.

Master Fan’s Home Puppet Making Workshop

Painting puppets

Mr and Mrs Fan practice a new number in the living room

Then we ate lunch

Shadow puppet workshops in the local classrooms.  @ 75 students per class.

I love her concentration

Fan Weiguo introduces the nighttime teahouse performance

My favorite portion of the performance; the traditional show.  Funny and acrobatic.

And it’s made me think long and hard about who, what and how these last remaining shadow masters are passing down their rare gifts. It’s hard to make blanket conclusions, as the circumstances are so varied throughout the country – but one thing is very clear. Those artists who were lucky enough to choose this profession are still doing it with a rare passion. And of those who were lucky enough to have offspring who either loved or felt compelled to get involved on their behalf are fairing the best.

I often forget that it can be a burden or even a curse to be born as a shadow puppet master’s only son (only men were allowed to practice until after the revolution). In my mind, it’s a bit of a romantic fantasy; imagine my only purpose in life is to become an amazing puppet cutter or performer! But it remains rosy because I don’t have to step beyond the movie montage playing in my mind. Suppose the inheritor had always secretly desired to be an accountant or an academic? A butcher or farmer? A stay-at-home Dad? Or all they wanted was a quiet room and no one to bother them? With America’s faded tradition of inheriting a profession, I have little understanding of what that feels like.

Some of the Masters who inherited the form do carry on the work with verve. Duty can also be an intense creator of passion and motivation in its own right. But many of the Master’s I’ve met, who have inherited this tradition, carry it on with heavy sigh. At this point in their life, they can’t switch carriers or change their skill set – so they’re doing the best they can. And these are the shadow masters who have ‘made’ it. There are probably hundreds still living that didn’t and have been absorbed back into the countryside fabric as swiftly as they appeared.

Hearing stories and meeting artists of both persuasions throughout the year, I’ve noticed the trend. Perhaps this passion is one of the key ingredients in artistic-Darwinism. Luck and passion. Only the most passionate will survive. For whatever their reasons, they will do anything to keep it going. I am inspired by this kind of stubbornness.

In Master Fan’s case, his passion and drive have inspired all of those around him. His family and son carry it on with love and duty and the younger employees have been caught by the bug. I can’t wait to see where they take it, all of them.

Thanks for reading~

The End of the Line

Today was my first ‘day off’ since arriving in China.  By ‘day off’ I mean simply sitting down at a desk and organizing my thoughts and to-do lists and what have you.  Catching my breath was needed after a whirlwind transition from America, meeting Simon in Hong Kong, the Fulbright midyear conference and my entry onto the mainland.

The 4th person I called today as Lu Hai.  I was told Lu Hai is a master puppet maker and performer.  On the 3rd ring, he picked up.

(In Chinese) “ Hello?”

“Hello, is Lu Hai there?”

“This is.”

“Hello.  My name is Annie.  I’m an American puppeteer in China studying shadow puppetry.  If you have time in the next couple of weeks, I’d love to meet you and ask you a few questions.”

“How about today?”

Aha.  Not the day off I had planned.  But when the puppets call, I must answer.

Within the hour, I was on the subway headed to the western most part of Beijing.  Jumping off at the end of Line 1, I hopped into a taxi and called Lu Hai.  Lu Hai explained where his apartment was to the taxi driver and we proceeded to drive further west of Beijing and into the mountains.  Here there are mostly energy plants and small building clusters to house their employees.

After 10 or so miles, I am dropped off at what seems like the end of the world.  And I wait.  Nothing.  I wait some more.  Nothing.  I call Lu Hai and explain that I have arrived and am waiting by the lady selling GuoCha berries.   I can’t think of any other way to describe my whereabouts.

In 5 minutes, Lu Hai rounds the corner.  He has a warm, wrinkled face and a relaxed gait.  He picks me out from 200 ft away and beckons me toward him.  Such a firm handshake.

His family’s apartment is modest and cozy.  A two bedroom configuration of cement and tile.  His wife and two grown children are shelling garlic cloves for dinner and they welcome me with equal warmth.

The next hour is spent looking through Lu Hai’s puppets and talking about his work.  He is a sixth generation Beijing style puppeteer, passed down through sons for over a hundred years.  He designs, cuts, performs and teaches the art form.  With a secret smile, he informs me that I called at a good time, for he is heading to Guan Dong in 3 days to teach for four months.

Beijing Shadow style differs greatly from traditional Xian puppets.  They are larger, softer and less intricate.  It’s thought to be an innovation from the original form – first presented only around 500 years ago in the Northeastern area of China.

Lu Hai has taken it a step further.  He’s quite aware of the fact that Chinese shadow puppetry can’t be sustained as it had been for the last thousand years or so.  He’s pushing it forward with new stories, new characters and an infusion of animal characters that he assured me “make the kids happy”.  They must.

He has trained troupes in China and toured to a number of Western European countries in his younger days.  His upcoming trip to Guan Dong is to train a troupe of dwarves to perform.  This is a growing trend as their height and physical constraints make regular physical labor impossible.  Coincidentally, I was scheduled to see the Beijing troupe perform this week at the Summer Palace.

While he talks, he unwraps his bundled collection of performance puppets. I can’t tell you how it feels to see these beautiful creations presented by the artist in person.   Pigs, alligators, monkeys, dolphins, creatures, people, scenic pieces, the works – an absolute delight and they aren’t even being animated.

We talk for a while about everything; how he met his wife while they were training together under his father, why he has chosen to veer from the traditional and how his son would be 7th generation, if he wanted to perform.  He acknowledges that his son is the end of the line with no sadness or judgment that I can see.  Perhaps this is something he believes was inevitable or perhaps they’ve come to an understanding.

Just when I feel it’s time to wrap up and announce that I’ve over-stayed my welcome, they all dress and insist that I ride with them to his studio.  Ok, I say.  Another 15 miles into the winding mountains and beyond the visible edge of the city lies Lu Hai’s puppet studio.  On the second floor of a non-descript red building is a modest couple of rooms for design, cutting, painting, presentation and a small stage with seating.  They all show me around the place and their pride and enthusiasm is humbling.

After a half hour or so, we pack into the car and they drop me near the train station.  I’ve agreed to study with him in Guan Dong for a few weeks and return to their home in Beijing to take pictures of his puppets and learn to make shadow puppet hides in the fall.  I impulsively move in for a hug as I leave the car side and Lu Hai hugs me back after a moment.  He tells me he’s has a lot of students, but I am the first American.   I am beginning to understand a thing about puppeteers – we’ve got family wherever we go.

With the fading sun at my back, I descend into the subway and reflect quietly as rush hour fills the empty train at the beginning of the line.

Thanks for reading~

For a more recent story on Lu Hai, follow the link: Making the Old New

Thanks to Stephen Kaplin @ Chinese Theatre Works for leading me to Lu Hai.  www.chinesetheatreworks.org